Identifying Suitable Professions using the Holland Model

John  Holland’s theory of types refers to types of personality and types of environment, and to occupations suitable for types and various combinations of types.  The theory states that there are six main personality types:  Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional, referred to by their initial letters:  R, I, A, S, E, C.

In addition to the personality profile, individuals can be characterized by two additional measures :  the degree of closeness between two most prominent types is called “internal consistency” and the gap between the most prominent and the least prominent type is called “differentiation”.

According to Holland, a person of a particular type seeks an environment where the majority are of a similar type.  The greater the match – “congruence” - between the individual and their human environment at work, the greater the expectations for success, satisfaction, dedication and so on.  Moreover,  for people with high internal consistence and/or differentiation, if they can find a work environment that suits their type, there is a greater chance of success, satisfaction and dedication than for people with low internal consistence and/or differentiation.

Main Goals: 
- Examine the participant’s personality type in order to predict job performance, work style, and preferred occupations based on their inclinations.
- Examine work options that are compatible with the participant’s inclinations.
Description of the Tool and How to Use It: 
Together with the participant, find out about their prominent types and the occupational combinations that could suit them based on Holland’s diamond model.  According to Holland, a person’s personality is determined by his three most prominent types, from the highest to the lowest.   A human environment (professional or social) can be defined by the most common type of personality found in it.  Degrees of closeness between the six types create a circular or hexagonal structure, depending on the degree of similarity. 
R = Realistic
S = Social
I = Investigative
E = Enterprising
C = Conventional
A = Artistic
Additional Tips: 









Stubborn,  no pretensions, dogmatic, natural, uninsightful

Analytical, intellectual, curious, scholar, open, wide range of interests

Open, non-conformist, imaginative, intuitive, sensitive, creative

Pleasant, friendly, understanding, sociable, persuasive, extrovert

Extrovert, dominant, adventurous, enthusiastic, seeks power, energetic

Conformist, conservative, unimaginative, inhibited, practical, methodical

Goals in life

Invent devices or tools, be an outstanding athlete

Invent products of value, theoretical  contribution to science

Be famous in artistic field, publish books, paint, compose music

Help others, sacrifice for others, be a talented teacher or therapist

Be a community leader, expert in finance and trade, be popular, dress well

Be an expert in finance and trade, be productive


Freedom, intellectual, ambition, self control, obedience

Intellectual, logic, ambition, cleverness

Equality, imagination, courage, esthetics

Equality, self respect, helping others, forgiveness

Freedom, ambition.  But forgiveness and willingness to help are perceived as negative values

Imagination and forgiveness are perceived as negative values


Thomas Edison, Admiral Byrd

Madam Curie, Charles Darwin

TS Eliot, Pablo Picasso

Jane Addams, Albert Schweitzer

Henry Ford, Andrew Carnegie

Bernard Baruch, John Rockefeller

Skills and abilities

Technical ability

Scientific ability

Artistic ability

Educational and social ability, leadership, sales, personal relations

Leadership and sales, educational and social, business and clerical, personal relations

Business and clerical ability

Best at..




Personal relations





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